Emerald Ash Borer Scouting

The way this client found me is a little bit strange.  He found my website by googling “bacterial leaf scorch” (I have articles posted about my experiences with BLS).  That’s what another “arborist” told him was wrong with his ash tree.  And that the disease would kill the tree, so he should remove it.  Well, ash trees have a few problems around here of late, but bacterial leaf scorch isn’t one of them.  Anyway, the tree didn’t look good and we talked about the true ash ailments – ash anthracnose (which the tree did have) and emerald ash borer (which hasn’t been found close to here yet).  In the end, he agreed we should inspect the tree for EAB, just to be sure.

Today, Ricky and Dave climbed the tree, and the one next to it, and checked it thoroughly.  Good news – negative for EAB.

The ailing ash

The ailing ash

Holes in leaves

Holes in leaves: from the ground you can’t see them in detail, can’t tell if it’s insect feeding damage; close up it doesn’t look like it. More likely caused by damage to buds from our late frost

We look for any clue - here you can see the wood pile contains ash firewood

We look for any clue – here you can see the wood pile contains ash firewood

hackberry emporer butterfly

While we were getting started, this hackberry emperor butterfly came by and took a liking to the minerals on Dave’s hardhat strap.  (Click the image to see a nice big version!)

Dave and Ricky

Dave and Ricky each went up a tree

a good, closeup inspection of the crown

…and did a good, closeup inspection of the crown.

If you have ash trees and are concerned about emerald ash borer now that it has been discovered in Bucks County, right now is the best time to have them checked.  This is the peak time for emergence of the adult insect.

Bacterial Leaf Scorch Update – Real Cases

You do not necessarily need to cut down your oak tree if you find out that it has bacterial leaf scorch. Yes, BLS is incurable.  But hey – so is diabetes.  If you find out you have diabetes are you going to go right to Dr. Kevorkian? Of course not!  Your doctor is going to tell you how to manage the disease.  And if you follow his advice you probably have a lot of good years left!

Here are some trees I’ve been watching for a while. All the photos were taken late in the growing season when the symptoms look the worst.

bls red oak paoli

Red oak, Paoli, tested positive 2007. Photo, Sept. 2010

This tree has some problems besides the BLS – old root and other injuries.  But the owner wants to keep it as long as possible.  It is not declining quickly.

bls row of red oaks valley forge

Row of red oaks, Valley Forge, photo Oct. 2010

These trees are healthy.  Do you see the gap in the treeline where the man is standing?  There was another oak tree there until 3 years ago.  It tested positive for BLS in 1992.  Before that, it was injured when the adjacent driveway was bulldozed.  Its health never recovered.  It stood diseased and declining for many years.  The trees right next to it were never affected although the spittlebugs and leafhoppers that can transmit the disease were surely present.

bls pin oak collegeville

Pin oak, Collegeville, photo Oct. 2010

This pin oak tested positive for BLS in 2003.  At that time, it was treated by trunk injection and prescription fertilizing to treat chlorosis (chlorophyll deficiency) NO antibiotics.  It looks like it is due for treatment again – see the yellow leaves?  But it’s hanging in there, not declining, no tip dieback.

bls pin oak norristown

Pin oak near Norristown, Oct. 2010

This tree tested positive for BLS in 1997.  It was treated with antibiotics and prescription fertilizer.  It had significant decline symptoms at that time, including tip dieback.  It has not been treated since, except for routine crown cleaning pruning.  It looks better than it did 13 years ago.  The owner is glad she kept it.

bls pin oak royersford

Pin oak in Royersford

This tree tested positive for BLS just last year.  The tree is full of sprouts because of bad pruning.  It is chlorotic because of soil chemistry.  This summer when the scorch symptoms appeared again the owner decided to invest in the treatments I suggested could improve its health.  We mulched as much of the root zone as he was willing to sacrifice from lawn area, to help preserve soil moisture.  This fall we will treat the soil with a prescription fertilizer treatment as per Penn State soil test results, along with a biostimulant.  Next spring I’ll evaluate leaf color and, perhaps, inject with micronutrient (iron) to treat chlorosis.  I will keep you posted next year with results!

What will happen to our oak trees in the future as a result of this disease?  Nobody really knows.  Here are some of the possibilities:

  • Some predict doom and gloom – a big percentage of red oak group trees will be killed.  Maybe, but I doubt it.  Remember that when you read a statement in a news article that says something like “90% of the trees tested in New Jersey have bacterial leaf scorch” that’s just the trees that are tested.  Nobody is testing trees that look healthy.
  • My guess is that we may find that the probability of infection is going to depend more on the individual tree’s genetics and health than just exposure to the bacterium.
  • Severity will probably vary from year to year.  Cold winters seem to suppress the disease.  Drought weakens the trees.
  • The oxytetracycline treatments used by some people really don’t seem to work.They definitely don’t  cure the disease.  But that doesn’t mean a better treatment won’t be discovered.  After all, Xylella fastidiosa is what causes Pierce’s disease in grapes.  It’s the same bacteria, though not genetically identical.  Xf  is a big problem for the grape industry.  And there is a lot more money for grape research than for shade trees.
  • I also predict that in many cases bacterial leaf scorch might end up being similar to a lot of other leaf diseases.  Like anthracnose of ash, sycamore and walnut, horsechestnut leaf blotch, scab of apples – more of a nuisance than a killer, especially if overall tree health can be  maintained.

We will learn more as the years pass.  I will watch these and other cases, and keep you posted on them as well as  on new developments.

GO TO MAIN ARTICLE on Bacterial Leaf Scorch

Bacterial leaf scorch is being exploited by opportunists. These two people avoided becoming victims.

Mrs. H and Mr. M from yesterday’s story have something else in common besides being surprised to find out the trees at their new houses had problems.  Both Mrs. H’s red oak and Mr. Ms pin oak have foliage that shows scorch symptoms.  Both could possibly be infected with bacterial leaf scorch (B.L.S.) (Xylella).

I think the causes of the bad appearance of the leaves on Mr. M’s tree are primarily abiotic – caused by environmental conditions rather than disease.  Mrs. H’s looks like bacterial leaf scorch.  But there is no way to tell for sure without a lab test.  Bacterial leaf scorch can’t be cured.  But BLS alone does not normally kill trees, at least not quickly.  We’ve only been able to reliably diagnose bacterial leaf scorch for about the last 20 years, and we still have more questions than answers about it.

But it’s been in the news a lot lately, and the news sensationalization of it has helped fuel a minor epidemic of fear.

Both Mrs. H and Mr. M solicited the help of other tree service companies besides mine.  Interestingly, both told me similar stories about their experiences.  Each was advised by at least one company that their trees were diseased and should be immediately removed.  And each had a company advise them to inject antibiotics into their diseased trees.  None of these companies suggested testing to find out if the trees actually had bacterial leaf scorch!  YOU CANNOT, WITH CERTAINTY, DIAGNOSE BACTERIAL LEAF SCORCH WITHOUT A LAB TEST!

I have a hunch that the companies that suggested removing the trees make a lot of their profit by removing trees.  And the ones who offer to inject them with antibiotics when they are symptomatic at the end of the growing season make a lot of their profit by selling snake oil pills.  Neither of these suggested actions is in the best interest of the trees or their owners.


Tomorrow I’ll share some case studies that will support my opinion that bacterial leaf scorch is not a death sentence.  I have been watching some cases for close to 20 years!